Timor Leste to its independence gained a series of impacts from the economic crisis

Authors

  • Lee Kim Wee Universitas Teknologi Nanyang, 50 Nanyang Ave, Singapore
  • Benjamin Tang Cheong Universitas Teknologi Nanyang, 50 Nanyang Ave, Singapore

Keywords:

Referendum, 21st Century, Independence, Turmoil

Abstract

Several regions in Indonesia demand independence. However, only East Timor won the referendum and finally gained independence. The turmoil that occurred in Timor Leste to its independence gained a series of impacts from the economic crisis that led to the collapse of the New Order government. In 1998, the separatist movement was not exclusively in East Timor. In this research, it is known that these students consider nationalism and awareness as citizens are shown by good social behavior every day. Among the people who crossed national borders and became Indonesians, some of them remained in the territory of the island of Timor which was quite close to the border of Timor Leste. The separation of Timor Leste made many of its citizens who remained pro-Indonesia decides to conduct an exodus and remain as an Indonesian citizen. One of the young countries that gained their independence at the end of the 21st century is Timor Leste. Previously, this country was the 27th province of Indonesia until the referendum in 1999.  Some of the people who moved when they were children have now grown to become students and are educating outside the city and even outside the island. This movement and choice remain as Indonesian citizens they choose to make these students have a different perspective on the concepts of nationalism and citizenship.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Achmad, J. (2003). East Timorese refugees in West Timor. In Fox, J.J. & Soares, D.B. (Eds). Out of the Ashes: Destruction and Reconstruction of East Timor. Canberra: ANU Press

Anderson, B. (2001). Imagined Communities: Imagined Communities. Yogyakarta: Insist Press-Student Library Anderson, T. (2006). Timor Leste: the second Australian intervention. Journal of Australian political economy, (58), 62-93.

Arikunto, S. (2006). Research Procedure: A Practical Approach. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta.

Bieber, Florian. (2018). Is Nationalism on the Rise? Assessing Global Trends. Ethnopolitics. 17: 5, 519-540

Billig, M. (1995). Banal Nationalism. London: Sage Publication

Blunt, P. (2009). The political economy of accountability in Timor Leste: Implications for public policy. Public Administration and Development: The International Journal of Management Research and Practice, 29(2), 89-100.

Boughton, B., & Durnan, D. (2014). Cuba’s “Yes, I Can” mass adult literacy campaign model in Timor-Leste and Aboriginal Australia: A comparative study. International review of education, 60(4), 559-580.

Braithwaite, J., Charlesworth, H., & Soares, A. (2012). Networked governance of freedom and tyranny: peace in Timor-Leste (p. 365). ANU Press.

Bucher, J, et, al. (2015). Timor-Leste: Transforming Education Through Partnership in a Small Post-Conflict State. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers

Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation (CAVR). (2010). Chega !: Report of the Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation (CAVR) in Timor-Leste. Jakarta: KPG

Delanty, G & O 'Mahony, P. (2002). Nationalism and Social Theory: Modernity and the Recalcitrance of the Nation. London: SAGE Publications.

Feijó, R. G., & Feijo, R. (2016). Dynamics of Democracy in Timor-Leste. Amsterdam University Press.

Gans, C. (2003). The Limits of Nationalism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Hägerdal, H & Berlie, J.A. (2018). in Berlie, J.A. East Timor's Independence, Indonesia and ASEAN. Palgrave Macmillan

Hall, T., Kakuma, R., Palmer, L., Minas, H., Martins, J., & Kermode, M. (2019). Social inclusion and exclusion of people with mental illness in Timor-Leste: a qualitative investigation with multiple stakeholders. BMC public health, 19(1), 1-13.

Hobsbawm, E. (1990). Nations and Nationalism since 1780: Program, Myth, Reality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Idrus, M. (2009). Social Science Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. Jakarta: Erlangga.

Kingsbury, D. (2013). Timor-Leste in 2012: The harsh reality of independence. Southeast Asian Affairs, 2013(1), 305-322.

Leach, M. (2009). The 2007 Presidential and Parliamentary Elections in Timor Leste. Australian Journal of Politics & History, 55(2), 219-232.

Leifer, M. (2000). Asian Nationalism. London and New York: Routledge.

McWilliam, A. (2011). Exchange and resilience in Timor Leste. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 17(4), 745-763.

Miles, M & Huberman, A. (1984). Qualitative Data Analysis. Newbury Park: Sage.

Moleong, L. J. (2010). Qualitative research methodology. Bandung: PT Remaja Rosdakarya.

Mulyana, S. (2008). National Awareness from Colonialism to Independence (Volume 1). Yogyakarta: LkiS

Mulyana, S. (2008). National Awareness from Colonialism to Independence (Volume 2). Yogyakarta: LkiS

Niner, S. (2011). Hakat klot, Narrow steps: negotiating gender in post-conflict Timor-Leste. International Feminist Journal of Politics, 13(3), 413-435.

Norbu, D. 1992. Culture and the politics of Third World Nationalism. New York: Routledge.

Poulton, E. (2004). Mediated Patriot Games: The Construction and Representation of National Identities in the British Television Production of Euro '96. International Review for the Sociology of Sport 39 (4): 437–55.

Richmond, O. P., & Franks, J. (2008). Liberal peacebuilding in Timor Leste: the emperor's new clothes?. International Peacekeeping, 15(2), 185-200.

Rimmer, S.H. (2013). Timor-Leste: International intervention, gender and the dangers of negative peace. In Aspinall, et al (Eds), Diminishing Con fl icts in Asia and the Paci fi c: Why some subside and others don't (pp 19-35). London: Routledge

Robet, R. & Boli Tobi, H. (2014). Introduction to the Sociology of Citizenship: From Marx to Agamben. Jakarta: Left margin

Sahin, S. B. (2011). Building the nation in Timor-Leste and its implications for the country's democratic development. Australian Journal of International Affairs, 65(2), 220-242.

Scheiner, C. (2015). Can the Petroleum Fund exorcise the resource curse from Timor-Leste?. A new era, 73-101.

Searle-White, J. (2001). The Psychology of Nationalism. New York: Palgrave.

Seippel, Ø. (2017). Sports and Nationalism in a Globalized World. International Journal of Sociology, 47: 43–61, 2017

Sen, A. (2006). Violence and Identity. Jakarta: Left margin

Shah, R. (2012). Goodbye conflict, hello development? Curriculum reform in Timor-Leste. International Journal of Educational Development, 32(1), 31-38.

Shoesmith, D. (2003). Timor-Leste: Divided leadership in a semi-presidential system. Asian Survey, 43(2), 231-252.

Soehadha, M. (2019). Strengthening the Identity and Social Segregation of the Community of Ex-East Timor Refugees. Reflective Sociology, Volume 13, N0. 2, April 2019. pp. 351-378.

Stanley, E. (2008). Torture, truth and justice: The case of Timor-Leste. Routledge.

Stanley, E. (2009). Torture, Truth and Justice The Case of Timor-Leste. New York: Routledge

Sugiyono. (2009). Educational Research Methods: Quantitative, Qualitative, and R & D Approaches. Bandung: Alfabeta.

Tamir, I. (2014). The Decline of Nationalism among Football Fans. Television & New Media 2014, Vol. 15 (8) 741–745

Tarling, N. (2017). Decolonisations: Compared Central America, Southeast Asia, the Caucauss. Palgrave Macmillan. Taylor-Leech, K. (2009). The language situation in Timor-Leste. Current issues in language planning, 10(1), 1-68.

Topic, Mojca D., & Coakley.J. (2010). Complicating the Relationship between Sport and National Identity: The Case of Post-socialist Slovenia. Sociology of Sport Journal 27 (4): 371–89.

Turner, B.S. (1993). Citizenship and Social Theory. London: Sage.

Van Klinken, G. (2018). Citizenship and local practices of rule in Indonesia. Citizenship Studies, 2018 VOL. 22, NO. 2, 112–128

Wallis, J. (2013). Victors, villains and victims: Capitalizing on memory in Timor-Leste. Ethnopolitics, 12(2), 133160.

Wallis, J., Jeffery, R., & Kent, L. (2016). Political reconciliation in Timor Leste, Solomon Islands and Bougainville: the dark side of hybridity. Australian Journal of International Affairs, 70(2), 159-178.

Wilson, T.M, & Donnan, H. (1998). Border identities Nation and state at international frontiers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Wiyono. B.B. (2007). Research Methodology (Quantitative Approaches, Qualitative, And Action Research). Malang: Faculty of Education, State University of Malang.

Yack, B. (2012). Nationalism and The Moral Psychology of Community. Chicago: The University of Chicago PressMoxham, B. (2008). State-Making and the Post-Conflict City: Integration in Dili, Disintigration in Timor Leste.

Published

2021-06-18

How to Cite

Wee, L. K., & Cheong, B. T. (2021). Timor Leste to its independence gained a series of impacts from the economic crisis. Tennessee Research International of Social Sciences, 3(1), 1-16. Retrieved from http://triss.org/index.php/journal/article/view/28

Issue

Section

Research Articles